The book has the title HTML5 Web Application Development By Example - Beginner's Guide and it is exactly what it states. The book covers the main HTML5 elements and the new APIs in HTML5 by developing (along with the reader) simple and interesting applications.
Before moving on, the author introduces the concept of binding data between the model and the UI, it implements the basics of a Binding framework. I think this is really helpful for people who are new to programming because it's possible they did not hear about the concept of binding and did not use any of the MVW (W-whatever) frameworks available out there.
The drawing basics are presented afterwards using HTML5's canvas object, and a nice painting application is being developed. Afterwards this application is extended to support some basic photo editing features (grey-scale, sepia); reading and writing image files is done through HTML5's new file API.
Maybe the most fun app developed in the book is the Piano app, for which the author uses the audio tag from HTML5 to get some sound out of the speakers (and of course some CSS, jQuery is also used).
At the end of the book the author covers the basics of AJAX and data manipulation (XML, JSON). The data communication between the client and the server is presented as a Weather app which loads the temperature of a city dynamically from the server. The Geolocation API is mentioned, but not presented extensively.
At the end of the book the author covers web workers (which were also introduced in HTML5), he uses web workers to generate data for fractals and these can be displayed afterwards.
Overall the book is really good with a lot of detailed explanation, but it is really helpful for beginners. The people who have used jQuery before or have some web developer experience will find these explanations too detailed. I think it is a good book to start with if you are new to web development and you would like to see where does the SPA (Single Page Application) concept start, because most of the apps developed in the book are SPAs.